Category Archives: Esport

What to know about Ozempic, TikTok’s favorite weight loss drug

Since gaining popularity online, the diabetes medication Ozempic (semaglutide) has been increasingly requested to manage weight. Now, there’s a shortage that’s affecting people who use the medication.

Scientists caution that for weight loss, the diabetes medication’s long-term safety and efficacy aren’t settled. That hasn’t stopped influencers.

Billionaire Elon Musk credited it for his dramatic weight loss. Celebrity sites allege that many more A-listers are using it to stay trim. And TikTok is full of influencers showing off their startling before-and-after shots showing off their weight loss after using it.

What is it? A medication called semaglutide, which is sold under different brand names, including Ozempic, approved in 2017 for treating type 2 diabetes, and Wegovy, approved just last year for weight loss.

The buzz about these drugs has created a shortage of both, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which is expected to last for several months—causing alarm among patients with diabetes who rely on Ozempic to help control their blood sugar. Experts caution that it’s important to understand these are not miracle drugs—and that there are risks to taking them outside of their intended use.

Here’s what you need to know about semaglutide, including how it works and the risks.

What’s the science behind the drug?
Semaglutide helps lower blood sugar by mimicking a hormone that’s naturally secreted when food is consumed, says Ariana Chao, assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing and medical director at the school’s Center for Weight and Eating Disorders. This medication, administered through injection, helps people feel full for longer, helps regulate appetite, and reduces hunger and cravings.

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There is significant demand for the drug. In 2019, more than 11 percent of the population was diagnosed with diabetes, while more than four in ten adults classified as obese in 2020.

Patients with type 2 diabetes often have impairments in insulin, a hormone that helps break down food and convert it into fuel the body can use, Chao says. Semaglutide signals the pancreas to create more insulin and also lowers glucagon, which helps control blood sugar levels. This can result in weight loss but experts point out that Ozempic has not been approved for that purpose, though semaglutide at a higher dose (Wegovy) has been.

Wegovy is the first drug since 2014 to be approved for chronic weight management. The difference between the two drugs is that Wegovy is administered at a higher dose of semaglutide than Ozempic. Wegovy’s clinical trials showed more weight loss but only slightly greater improvements in glycemic control compared to Ozempic, Chao says.

The FDA sees Ozempic and Wegovy as two different medications for different uses. Chao says many insurance companies cover Ozempic for diabetes but don’t cover Wegovy for obesity—a prime example of weight bias in health care. That’s why some medical providers use the two doses somewhat interchangeably, as obesity and type 2 diabetes are inextricably linked–obesity is the leading risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes.

What are the risks?
Like every medication, there can be downsides.

The most common side effects are gastrointestinal issues, such as nausea, constipation, and diarrhea, Chao says—and more rarely, pancreatitis, gallbladder disease, and diabetic retinopathy.

These drugs have been extensively studied, but their relatively recent approval means researchers still don’t know what the effects of taking them long term might be.

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Continuing research is helping us understand more about what happens when people stop taking these medications—which many may be forced to do amid current shortages. Research does suggest that stopping use of this medication could cause patients to regain weight, especially if they didn’t make any lifestyle changes.

“In almost all weight-loss studies, it really depends on your foundation,” says Stanford endocrinologist Sun Kim. “Your efforts at lifestyle will determine how much weight you lose. If you have your foundations like food, exercise, and sleep, you’re gonna do well.” If not, you might regain as much as 20 percent of the weight lost per year.

These medications can also be incredibly expensive, especially without insurance. Kim says an injection pen can run more than $1,000.

What does it mean to use this drug off-label?
Using a drug off-label means using it in a way other than its intended and its FDA-approved purpose, which may not be safe or effective. Ozempic has been approved only for type 2 diabetics, and Wegovy has been approved only for patients with a BMI above 30, or 27 if they have a weight-related comorbidity like high blood pressure.

“There is no scientific evidence to show whether this medication will be effective or of benefit to those who do not fit the criteria from the FDA-approved label indications, such as people with a BMI lower than 27,” Chao says. “We also do not know the side effects or risks in these populations—there could be unknown drug reactions. These medications are not meant to be a quick fix.”

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Even if you meet the criteria, experts warn against trying to obtain the medication without a prescription by traveling to countries that don’t require them.

“When the medication’s not used under supervision of a health-care provider, then they can come into misuse,” Chao says. “There could be more serious adverse events that can happen.”

Other experts also argue that, with Ozempic becoming hard to find, diabetes patients should be the first in line.

“What I do worry about, and I hope it’s only temporary, is the supply chain issue,” Kim says. “If I had to triage and prioritize, I would maybe favor someone that is controlling their diabetes to get it.”

Robert Gabbay, the American Diabetes Association’s chief scientific and medical officer, says the organization is “very much concerned” about the Ozempic shortage.

“The medication has been an important tool for people with diabetes,” he says. “Not only does it lower blood glucose and weight but it has been shown to decrease cardiovascular events—heart attacks—one of the leading causes of death for those living with diabetes.”

A last resort?
Still, Kim says that prescribing drugs like Ozempic and Wegovy to patients who are desperate for a new approach to weight loss can make her feel “like a superhero.” By the time patients come to her, they’ve often tried methods like Weight Watchers and following the advice of dieticians. In that case, she says, medications like Ozempic and Wegovy can be a great option.

“What I find is sometimes as they’re becoming successful at losing weight, it really does feed into their lifestyle too, and then they’re able to be more active,” Kim says. “It’s hard to lose weight. Seventy-five percent of the U.S. population is overweight or obese. I feel that we shouldn’t be holding this back if this can help.”

Chao agrees that these medications are a good alternative for those who are unable to lose 5 percent of their body weight within about three months of making lifestyle changes. Still, she recommends trying those approaches before turning to medication.

Patients should “make sure that they’re focusing on a healthy dietary pattern, reducing calories, as well as increasing physical activity,” she says. “It’s important they know that even if they are taking the medication, it’s not an easy way out: They’re still going to have to make lifestyle changes.”

els perills de beure massa aigua

En el peor de los casos puede conducir a una enfermedad denominada hiponatremia

Frutas que deberías consumir con moderación si quieres adelgazar


Cuestión de equilibrios

Se debe a que la sal y los electrolitos de nuestro organismo quedan demasiado diluidos y los niveles quedan por debajo de lo conveniente, es decir menos de 135 milimoles por litro. El sodio contribuye a mantener el equilibrio de fluidos en el interior y el exterior de las células. Si desciende por exceso de agua, esta se desplaza del exterior al interior de las células y provoca que se hinchen. Es especialmente peligroso cuando afecta al cerebro, porque puede dar lugar a un edema, que afecta al tronco encefálico, y causar una disfunción del sistema nervioso central. Si este descenso se produce de forma súbita, puede resultar fatal, y aunque la muerte por ese motivo es muy rara, no es imposible. …

Según un estudio realizado en 2013, cuyos resultados aparecieron en el Medical News Today estadounidense, los riñones pueden eliminar entre 20 y 28 litros de agua diarios, pero a un ritmo no superior a 0,8 o 1 litro por hora. La hiponatremia se produce cuando se somete a los riñones a un exceso de trabajo con cantidades de líquido muy superiores.

Los autores de la investigación exponían que los síntomas de esa enfermedad podían presentarse si se bebía entre 3 y 4 litros en un corto periodo de tiempo, que no especificaban. Según uno de los casos que ilustraba el estudio, unos soldados la sufrieron después de haber bebido casi dos litros de agua por hora durante un duro entrenamiento. En otro caso, se había ingerido cinco litros en unas pocas horas.

Los riñones no tienen tiempo de depurar todo ese líquido con tanta rapidez y en lugar de expulsarlo del cuerpo por la orina lo mandan a las células.

las atletas no quieren competir con transexuales

Martina Navratilova no quiere atletas trans en competiciones femeninas: “Es insano, tramposo e injusto”


La extenista Martina Navratilova ha generado una gran controversia en el mundo del deporte tras mostrarse contraria a que atletas trans compitan como mujeres. En su opinión “son hombres que decidieron ser mujeres” y permitir su participación en torneos femeninos es “insano, tramposo e injusto para mujeres que tienen que pasar a competir contra personas que, biológicamente, siguen siendo hombres”.

Las atletas dicen basta: no quieren competir con transexuales

Save Women’s Sports (SWS) es una organización que aboga por preservar el criterio del sexo genético para la admisión a competiciones deportivas para mujeres. A finales de abril envió una petición al Comité Olímpico Internacional (COI) para que, aprovechando la postergación de los Juegos Olímpicos de Tokio a 2021, suspenda unas normas adoptadas en 2015, que permiten a las mujeres trans competir en certámenes femeninos.

Autorizar a transexuales a competir contra ellas es, dicen, “una rampante discriminación por sexo”

“Las normas fijadas en el consenso de 2015, que permiten a los hombres que se identifican como mujeres entrar en las categorías femeninas, son inaceptables. Reducir simplemente los niveles de testosterona durante un año no anula la ventaja masculina sobre las atletas femeninas”, aseguran.

Entre las firmantes se encuentran las fundadoras de SWS: Linda Blade, excampeona canadiense de heptatlón y presidenta de Athletics Alberta, y la levantadora de pesas estadounidense Beth Stelzer. Pero se han sumado atletas de casi 30 países.

En su petición al COI, tildan la decisión de “irresponsable, negligente y peligrosa”, y señalan que el organismo deportivo ha abandonado su deber de proteger la seguridad y la integridad de las mujeres. Autorizar a transexuales a competir contra ellas es, dicen, “una rampante discriminación por sexo”.

La ciencia acude en apoyo de su petición. Una investigación del Karolinska Institute, publicada en septiembre pasado, se fijó como objetivo comprobar si las hormonas que se administran para el cambio de sexo tienen efecto en la función y el tamaño de los músculos de las personas receptoras. Participaron 11 mujeres trans (genéticamente hombres) y 12 hombres trans (genéticamente mujeres), y se demostró que, tras un año de tratamiento y reducción de testosterona al primer grupo, todavía mantenían la ventaja sobre las mujeres biológicas.

“Las mujeres trans son bienvenidas en las competiciones deportivas siempre que no ganen”

La coautora de las directrices para deportistas trans del Comité Olímpico Internacional está de acuerdo con que “las mujeres intersexuales, si quieren competir, tengan que reducir sus niveles de testosterona”

“En el deporte no importan los genitales, importan las hormonas”, defiende 

“Es importante que se celebren competiciones deportivas en todo el mundo, aunque eso signifique que a veces haya que ir a países donde las cosas están lejos de ser ideales”, dice sobre el Mundial de Atletismo que se celebra este año en Catar

Joanna Harper, coautora de las directrices para deportistas trans del Comité Olímpico Internacional

Tras iniciar su terapia hormonal en 2004, Joanna Harper comenzó a apreciar que su velocidad en las carreras de atletismo en las que participaba disminuía. Al cabo de unos meses, sus marcas eran un 12% inferiores a las que realizaba como varón. Esta física clínica del Providence Portland Medical Center, en Oregón, EEUU, se percató de que esa era, precisamente, la diferencia entre las categorías masculina y femenina y comenzó una investigación en la que analizó las marcas de ocho atletas antes y después de la transición, obteniendo resultados similares al suyo.